小编带您了解高温电炉各部件的作用
2018-08-16 10:59:35

    作为一台机械设备的操作人员来说,想要更好的去操作,首先要知道它各部分构件,熟知各部分构件的作用,才能更好的去使用它。就拿高温电炉来说,常用的人都了解它的构成,但是各个构件的作用您知道吗?下面小编来告诉您吧:
1、炉膛:炉膛的(de)外围包(bao)着一层(ceng)很厚的(de)绝缘(yuan)耐热镁砖(zhuan)和石棉纤维以减少(shao)热量的(de)损失,外壳(qiao)再包(bao)上带角铁的(de)骨架(jia)和铁皮(pi)箱。
2、变(bian)阻器:变(bian)阻器的许多(duo)接头与(yu)(yu)炉丝相接,当滑动(dong)把柄滑到某接头上,即(ji)与(yu)(yu)该接头相接通(tong)电(dian),其(qi)构造(zao)与(yu)(yu)万用电(dian)炉相似。也有的变(bian)阻器不在炉底下,而是(shi)另附一(yi)套装置(zhi)来控制温度高低的。
3、空(kong)心耐(nai)火泥(ni)棒:棒内(nei)装有一(yi)(yi)(yi)条(tiao)对温度(du)很(hen)敏感的(de)(即膨胀系数(shu)大(da)的(de))耐(nai)高温合金棒,这(zhei)个金属(shu)棒连(lian)在(zai)炉(lu)(lu)(lu)底(di)或炉(lu)(lu)(lu)外(wai)的(de)一(yi)(yi)(yi)个继电器(qi)上,构(gou)成了一(yi)(yi)(yi)套很(hen)灵敏的(de)自动控(kong)制系统。最(zui)简单的(de)自动控(kong)制是(shi)在(zai)耐(nai)高温合金棒上连(lian)接(jie)一(yi)(yi)(yi)个金属(shu)杆(gan)或弹簧片可(ke)以调(diao)(diao)节与(yu)炉(lu)(lu)(lu)丝(si)接(jie)触点的(de)距(ju)(ju)离(li)(li)。当炉(lu)(lu)(lu)内(nei)达(da)(da)不(bu)(bu)到所需温度(du)时(shi),金属(shu)棒4膨胀不(bu)(bu)大(da),可(ke)调(diao)(diao)节连(lian)接(jie)杆(gan)5使与(yu)炉(lu)(lu)(lu)丝(si)接(jie)头7相连(lian),继续(xu)通(tong)电加热(re)(re)。当温度(du)达(da)(da)到一(yi)(yi)(yi)定高数(shu)值时(shi),金属(shu)棒膨胀并推动连(lian)接(jie)杆(gan)与(yu)炉(lu)(lu)(lu)丝(si)接(jie)头断开(kai),切断电路停止加热(re)(re)。炉(lu)(lu)(lu)丝(si)接(jie)头与(yu)连(lian)接(jie)杆(gan)的(de)距(ju)(ju)离(li)(li)是(shi)根据温度(du)的(de)需要可(ke)以调(diao)(diao)节的(de)。
4、炉门是绝热耐(nai)火砖(zhuan)制成,中间开一小孔(kong),嵌(qian)一块透明云母片以备观察(cha)炉内(nei)情况(kuang)。
5、温(wen)度(du)(du)计(ji):在炉(lu)的上面装有一个电热温(wen)度(du)(du)计(ji)及时指示出炉(lu)内(nei)温(wen)度(du)(du)。温(wen)度(du)(du)计(ji)是(shi)由(you)一个毫伏计(ji)和两(liang)种(zhong)不同导线(xian)制成的热电偶组成。
6、热(re)(re)(re)电(dian)(dian)(dian)偶(ou):是用(yong)(yong)两条(tiao)不同金属(shu)的导线连成(cheng)(cheng)一个(ge)闭(bi)(bi)合(he)电(dian)(dian)(dian)路,在(zai)(zai)其中一个(ge)接点(dian)(dian)(dian)(dian)(dian)加热(re)(re)(re)(另一接点(dian)(dian)(dian)(dian)(dian)处于冷(常)温(wen)状态),由于不同金属(shu)中的电(dian)(dian)(dian)子浓度(du)(du)和(he)(he)运动速度(du)(du)不同,就产(chan)生(sheng)了(le)电(dian)(dian)(dian)子扩散(san)现象,这样在(zai)(zai)闭(bi)(bi)合(he)电(dian)(dian)(dian)路中就产(chan)生(sheng)了(le)电(dian)(dian)(dian)流。用(yong)(yong)一个(ge)小(xiao)(xiao)电(dian)(dian)(dian)流表接在(zai)(zai)中间来记录电(dian)(dian)(dian)流的大(da)(da)(da)小(xiao)(xiao),冷点(dian)(dian)(dian)(dian)(dian)和(he)(he)热(re)(re)(re)点(dian)(dian)(dian)(dian)(dian)温(wen)度(du)(du)差越大(da)(da)(da),电(dian)(dian)(dian)流强度(du)(du)越大(da)(da)(da)。这个(ge)电(dian)(dian)(dian)流数(shu)据的大(da)(da)(da)小(xiao)(xiao)就代(dai)表了(le)炉(lu)内(nei)(nei)的温(wen)度(du)(du)数(shu)。热(re)(re)(re)电(dian)(dian)(dian)偶(ou)除用(yong)(yong)铜(tong)(tong)和(he)(he)康(kang)铜(tong)(tong)外(wai)还有用(yong)(yong)铂(bo)-铂(bo)铑合(he)金制成(cheng)(cheng),可测高达1400℃的温(wen)度(du)(du)。用(yong)(yong)铁和(he)(he)康(kang)铜(tong)(tong)制成(cheng)(cheng)的热(re)(re)(re)电(dian)(dian)(dian)偶(ou)也可测至1000°C。热(re)(re)(re)电(dian)(dian)(dian)偶(ou)的毫(hao)伏表上(shang)指示的数(shu)值大(da)(da)(da)小(xiao)(xiao),与两个(ge)接点(dian)(dian)(dian)(dian)(dian)(冷点(dian)(dian)(dian)(dian)(dian)和(he)(he)热(re)(re)(re)点(dian)(dian)(dian)(dian)(dian))的温(wen)度(du)(du)差成(cheng)(cheng)正比。装在(zai)(zai)高温(wen)炉(lu)上(shang)的热(re)(re)(re)电(dian)(dian)(dian)偶(ou),热(re)(re)(re)点(dian)(dian)(dian)(dian)(dian)在(zai)(zai)炉(lu)内(nei)(nei),冷点(dian)(dian)(dian)(dian)(dian)在(zai)(zai)炉(lu)体外(wai)。


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